Навчально-методичний посібник. History of Kyiv. (додаток до НМК Solutions Pre-Intermediate)


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Навчально-методичний посібник

History of Kyiv

(додаток до НМК Solutions Pre-Intermediate)

History of Kyiv

History of Kyiv

Kyiv
Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. On the 24th of August 1991 Ukraine became an independent state. Kyiv is the home of the Supreme Rada of Ukraine, administration of the President and the Cabinet of Ministers. Here we have many embassies of different countries. That is why it is the political centre of Ukraine.

Science has always flourished in Kyiv. Here the first institute was founded — Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. There has always been literature, music, theatre, art, schools. That is why Kyiv is a great scientific and cultural centre. We have the well known National University named after Taras Shevchenko, a number of institutes, colleges and specialized schools. That is why it is the centre of education.

Kyiv is an industrial centre. People make powerful aeroplanes, produce cloth, medicines, clothes and boots, among other things.

It is well-known for its churches. We have the famous Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. The symbol of Kyiv is the Archangel Mykhail, a heavenly warrior with a sword of fire, who has always been considered the defender of Kyiv. The monument to Mykhail stands in the centre of the capital on the Independence Square.

The territory of the city is 825 square kilometres. The population is 2 million 700 thousand. There are more than 300 schools and more than 1300 libraries in the capital! There are many books written about Kyiv.

Tasks:

  1. What does Kyiv mean for Ukraine?
  2. How many people live in Kyiv? Compare the population  of Kyiv with that of some other capi tals.

3.What books, legends, songs, films about Kyiv do you know?

Choose the best answer:

  1. Ukraine became an independent state
  2. on the 26 th of August.
  3. on the 24 th of April.
  4. on the 24 th of August.
  5. National University named after
  6. Taras Shevchenko.
  7. Ivan Franko.
  8. Myhailo Hrusheskiy.
  9. The symbol of Kyiv is
  10. Kyi, Schek, Khjryv.
  11. Prince Volodymyr.
  12. Archangel Mykhail.

Kyiv History

Kyiv was founded on the right bank of the Dnieper. Here there was a division between forests and steppes. To the north of Kyiv there were large forests full of wild life. To the south there were fields of fertile land, good for growing wheat.

There is a legend in the ‘Chronicles’ of Nestor written at the beginning of the 12th century. Nestor the Chronicler wrote, “…when Poliany lived freely there were three brothers: Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and a sister – Lybid.” Kyi sat on the hill which is now called Borychiv descent; Schek sat on the hill which is now called Schekavytsia; Khoryv sat on the hill which is now called Khoryvytsia. They built a town and called it Kyiv after their elder brother. There was a forest around the town and people hunted wild animals there.

Nobody knows the exact date of the foundation of Kyiv. The territory of Kyiv was inhabited many years ago. 15—20 thousand years ago our ancient ancestors lived here. Scientists have found several settlements, the largest of which is called Kyrylivska settle­ment. The climate in those days was colder, which is why people lived not on the hill, but in the valley. Archalogists found the remnants of fires, mammoths’ bones and simple tools. You can see them in the Natural Sciences Academy of Ukraine.

The settlements that existed before III century B.C. are called Pre-Kvivan. Then people settled on the Old Kyiv Mountain (Starokyivska) and Castle Mountain (Zamkova), in Podil, Obolon, Pechersk and other places. People grew crops and bred animals, and knew how to make tools out of bronze, ore, how to make pots out of clay. They traded with Greek towns on the Black Sea.

Scientists proved that Kyiv as a city had begun life in the V century.

Kyiv is now considered to be more than 1500 years old.

Still, we don’t know much about Kyiv. We know the names of Askold and Dir. Askold was famous for his trips to Byzantine. In 860 he was near to taking Konstantynopol (or Tsargorod) and Byzantine had to make a treaty with Askold which was profitable for Rus.

These raids had another result: Askold became a Christian. That was possibly the cause of his death. In 882 Oleg came to Kyiv and killed Askold. The people of Kyiv then made Oleg their prince.

Askold was buried at the place of his death. Later Princess Olga, a Christian, built a church on his grave. In the 19th century a round church was built on that spot.

There is the very beautiful St. Andrew’s church. According to a legend, Jesus’ apostle Andrew appeared at that place, put down a cross and said there would be a Christian city there.

Tasks:

1. Why was the geographical position suitable for foundation of Kyiv?

2.Who founded Kyiv?

  1. When did Kyiv appear as a city?
  2. What do you know about Askold?
  3. What historical names have survived in Kyiv?

Match 1-5 with a-e to make true sentences:

  1.  Kyiv was founded
  2.  Kyi sat on the hill
  3.  The settlements that existed before III century B.C.
  4.  Schek sat on the hill
  5.  Khoryv sat on the hill
  1.  are called Pre-Kyivan.
  2.  called Schekavytsia.
  3.  on the right bank of the Dnieper.
  4.  called Khoryvytsia.
  5.  called Borychiv descent.

 

The Prince’s City

In the 10th century Kyiv became the capital of a powerful state — Kyiv Rus. It owned a vast territory — frоm the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Prince Oleg nailed a shield to the gate of Tsargorod and made Byzantine pay tribute to Kyiv Rus. Princes Sviatoslav, Volodymyr and Yaroslav added new lands to Kyiv Rus. This great state had a great capital, Kyiv.

The centre of the capital was on the Old Kyiv (Starokyivska) mountain, where legendary Kyiv lived. Prince Volodymyr built a new place. Its territory was 10 hectares. It was the city of Volodymyr. The streets led to the main square—Babyn Torzhok (Women’s market), decorated by four horses. Not far away were figures of pagan gods. After baptizing they were thrown into the Dnieper, and the Decimal (Desiatynna) church was built in Kyiv. Prince Volodymyr gave his title for the building of this church. That’s why it has such a name.

The baptizing of Rus took place in 988. From that time chronicles, schools, churches appeared. Prince Volodymyr who baptized Rus is considered a Saint. To honor him Volodymyrskyi Cathedral was built in Kyiv. There is a monument to him on Mykhailivska hill. The bronze prince with a great cross is seen over the Dnieper.

The monument to Princess Olga also reminds us about baptizing of Rus. On one side of the monument stands St Andrew, and on the other side St. Cyril and St. Methodius. Princess Olga is also considered a Saint.

Volodymyr’s town soon became too small. Prince Yaroslav put a fence around a much larger territory. Yaroslav’s town was eight times bigger than Volodymyr’s. Only wealthy people lived there. During that time Kyiv occupied 400 hectares. Approximately 50 thousand people lived there. It was one of the biggest cities in Europe at the time.

Kyiv was worth seeing then. You could see the golden domes of churches and cathedrals and the Golden Gate. The Golden Gate was enormous in size. The wall was 16 metres high, 30 metres wide. The Golden Gate survives even now. It was reconstructed several years ago. Under Independence Square the remnants of another gate was found — Liadski Gate. Under Lviv Square one more gate — Lviv Gate — was excavated.

Khreschatyck was a valley covered with forests on the bottom of which there was a stream. The people of Kyiv hunted here for small animals and birds. On the hills there were churches of monasteries: Klov, Berestove, Vydubychi, Kytaieve. These names have survived up to now.

But the noisest life was in Podil. Here Craftsmen lived. People having the same trade lived in one place, and this place was called after them: Gonchary, Kozhumiaky. Zhytnii market was very busy. Not far from it in the harbour of Pochaina, traders’ ships tied up were moored. The skill of the goldsmiths surprises people even now. Kyiv treasures tell us about this. The richest is the Mykhailivskyi treasure found on Mykhailivsca Hill. The treasures are kept in many museums of Russia and in the Historical Museum of the Jeweller’s Art which is situated in the grounds of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra.

Tasks:

  1. What do you know about Volodymyr’s town?
  2. What do you know about the craftsmen of Podil.

Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences:

  1. Princess Olga added new lands to Kyiv Rus.
  2. The centre of the capital was on the Starokyivska mountain.
  3. The streets led to the main square – Babyn Torzhok, decorated by five horses.
  4. The monument to Saint Volodymyr is on Mykhailivska hill.
  5. Only wealthy people lived in Yaroslav’s town.

Kyiv Sophia

Up to the 11th century there were constant wars between the people of Kyiv Rus and Pechenigy. They lasted for 120 years. At the beginning of the 11th century Prince Yaroslav fought them for the last time and conquered mem. To celebrate this event in 1037 Prince Yaroslav began building the Sophia Cathedral. This was the main cathedral of Kyiv Rus.

The word Sophiameans wisdomin Greek. Prince Yaroslav, called Wise, valued wisdom, knowledge and books most of all. But he named his biggest cathedral not just because of this. ,The main cathedral of the capital of Byzantine was also called Sophia, and it seemed that Kyiv was challenging Konstantynopol and putting itself on the same level. The rules for building churches came to us from Byzantine along with Christianity. The church was to be square. Inside it was divided into long sections — naves. Russian builders also built these according to the rules. They also used their own experience, having built stone palaces in Kyiv. Sophia Cathedral doesn’t look like any other church in the world. It is beautiful and unique.

When you come into the Cathedral, you first notice Mother Oranta who is raising her hands in prayer. Mother Oranta is represented on a bright golden background, her clothes are gold and blue. These colours are the symbols of Ukraine, and they are on our flag. On the main dome Jesus Christ you see. He is looking at us with his big, calm, understanding eyes. These and other figures are made of mosaics — coloured pieces of special glass called smalt. These coloured pieces of glass were made by Ukrainian people. They made glass, added some dye and then poured substance onto a flat surface. When these ‘pancakes’ were ready, they were split into even blocks. There are 168 colours in the mosaics of Sophia Cathedral. It was much harder to make the golden pieces. To do this very thin golden sheets were put into the clear the glass.

Of the 640 square metres whichwere decorated with mosaics in Sophia Cathedral, now only 260 are left. Even so, no other place in the world has so many old mosaics.

The rest of the walls were decorated with frescoes — paintings on wet plaster. About 3000 square metres of frescoes have survived. They are not as bright, but they had to withstand very much. The most interesting ones are images of Yaroslav the Wise with his                                            wife, his sons and daughters. On the walls there are scenes of hunting, ancient Russian musicians and dancers. There are also very valuable frescoes, which tell much about life at that time. Sophia Cathedral has its secrets. Why do voices sound so clear here? Without any microphone they can be heard all over the great building. The ancient craftsmen used their skills here. They embedded thousands of pots in the walls. The sound travels into the pots, and the walls work like best modern musical equipment.

One more secret of Sophia has yet to be revealed. Many years ago books were written here. Yaroslav the Wise created and stored his library here. It is believed that there were more than 1000 books in it. In Europe in those days big libraries had about 100 books, the biggest ones had 200 or 300. But here, in Sophia Cathedral, there were three times more! The books were written by hand, their covers were decorated with gold and precious stones. People didn’t use paper in those days, the sheets were made of parchment — a very thin skin. Skins of 60 calves were used to make one book ‘Ostromyrove Gospel.’ They were so expensive that only princes and wealthy people could have books.

The question is: where is the library now? There are different answers to this question. Some people think that Yaroslav’s descendents divided them, and the books were spread along Russia. Other people believe that the library is still hidden somewhere. For many years it was looked for in the caves under Sophia Cathedral. In front of the Cathedral there is a marble stone with Yaroslav’s portrait to commemorate the first library of Kyiv Rus. Prince Yaroslav the Wise is buried here, in Sophia Cathedral, in a sarcophagus made of white marble.

Sophia Cathedral has seen much tragedy during its history. But the people of Kyiv have always repaired and renewed it New Sophia Cathedral has beautiful new domes. They are in Ukrainian Baroque style.

Sophia Cathedral is a precious monument not only for Ukraine, but for the whole world. UNESCO protects it and tourists from many countries come to see it.

There are many books written about Sophia Cathedral. There is even a historical novel — ‘Wonder’ by Pavlo Zagrebelny.

There is a legend that while Sophia Cathedral is standing and Maria Oranta is praying for us, God is keeping Kyiv safe. Not far from Sophia Cathedral, near the Golden Gate, stands a monument to Yaroslav the Wise. The prince is holding a model of Sophia Ca­thedral on his palm. His greatest creation, and most valuable present to us, his descendents, is Sophia Cathedral.

Tasks:

1. Why was Sophia Cathedral built?

  1. What are its mosaics, fres coes famous for?
  2. Tell about Mariia Oranta.
  3. What do you know about Yaroslav’s library?

Make up sentences:

  1. Kyiv / of / cathedral / Rus / Sophia Cathedral / the / was / main.
  2. Greek / the / Sophia / wisdom / in / word / means.
  3. Old / no / place / mosaics / other / in / has / the / so / world / many.
  4. Hunting / on / scenes / of / the / are / walls / there.
  5. Books / here / many / ago / were / years / written.

The Glorious Monastery

During the 11th century, in a small cave in the forest over the Dnieper settled a monk named Antonii. He was famous for his righteousness. Other people moved to the cave. Eventually 12 monks widened the cave and made the first underground church. This was the way Pechersk Monastery appeared. We call it Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. Its head was Variaam,  later — Pheodosii.

It was difficult to live in the monastery. The monks ate only bread and drank water. Later they built cells on the mountain. The caves were used for burials. Antonii liked being alone, so he dug a separate cave for himself.

The first caves became the Near Caves, and the first man-made caves became the Far Caves, In 1073 building began on the famous Uspenskyi Cathedral. It was built by great craftsmen and decorated with mosaics and frescoes. There were mosaics on the floor and the icons were covered with silver and gold. The walls were full of portraits of Ukrainian princes, hetmans and educationalists. Outstanding people of Ukraine were buried here. During the Second World War it was blown up. Only a part of the wall of the Cathedral has survived.

Troitska (Trinity) Overgate Church was built in the Lavra during the Princes’ times. It has also known changes, and now has the features of Ukrainian baroque, as Sophia Cathedral. There is a wonderful iconostas which was made in the 18th century by Ukrainian craftsmen. It looks like wonderful golden lace. It is difficult to believe it is made of wood.

Underground churches in the caves have also survived. There are 6 of them now. They are very small and simple. The monks refused any decorations which could divert them from thinking about God. The only decorations in the cave churches are golden iconostases.

Kyiv-Pechcrsk Lavra became the greatest sacred place to the Ukrainian people. In the Christian world it stands after Jerusalem and the sacred mountain Afon in Greece. There are many legends surrounding the place: legends of the caves, the churches, the bell-towers, and especially the lives of the people here. These are considered sacred. There are the preseved relics of 100 monks in the Lavra. That’s why the Lavra has always attracted believers who come here to worship God’s people. Manyfamous writers, artists, builders and healers of Kyiv Rus are among them. Nestor the Chronicler was one of the monks of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. He wrote the oldest Russian chronicle ‘Chronicle of the Old Times.’ He also wrote ‘The Life of Pheodosius of Pechersk,’ ‘Readings of the Life and Death of Boris and Gleb’ — about the death of Volodymyr’s sons. Pheodosius, a monk of Pechersk Monastery, was also a church-writer. He came from a rich prince’s warrior family, which is why he received a good education.

The monks of Lavra wrote a precious literary monument of Kyiv Rus — a book of stories called ‘Kyiv-Pechersk Paterik.’ The word paterin Latin means father. The priests are usually called fathers. ‘Paterik’ tells about the fathers of Pechersk Lavra, their lives, good deeds, about the foundation of the Monastery, the building of Uspenskyi Cathedral. In every story there is an unusual event, so it is interesting to read.

A very famous icon painter, Alimpii worked in Lavra He was famous all over the Kyiv Rus. Every church wanted to have his icons. One icon was painted for Prince Volodymyr Monomakh. It has survived and is the pride of the picture gallery in Moscow. This is the famous Mariia Oranta. Alimpii also took part in the painting of Uspenskyi Cathedral.

Sick people often came to the Monastery, because the monks were also healers. They healed by prayers. They used herbs and medicines brought from Egypt, Byzantine and the Eastern countries. The most famous healer was Agapit. There is the church and the monument to him in the National Medical University. Damian, other healers included, who healed sick children and Prokhor Lobodnyk healed with herbs.

When Chernigiv Prince Sviatoslav became a monk of Lavra, he built a large hospital with a church to St. Mykolaj. That prince-monk was an amazing person. Like everybody else, he cut woods, carried water, worked in the bakery. He founded a library in Lavra, and planted an orchard on the hills.

Mykhailo Slaboshpytski wrote an interesting book ‘From the Voice of Our Klio’ about many outstanding people of Kyiv Rus.

Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra was the centre of culture for many centuries.

Tasks:

  1.  When was Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra founded?
  2. What was Alimpii?
  3. Tell about the ancient Ukrainian healers.

4.Which buildings have survived in the Monastery from the times of Kyiv Rus?

5. Whom   do  you  know among ancient Russian writers?

6. What famous book is written in Lavra?

 

do  you  know among ancient Russian writers?

6. What famous book is written in Lavra?

 

Kyiv

Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. On the 24th of August 1991 Ukraine became an independent state. Kyiv is the home of the Supreme Rada of Ukraine, administration of the President and the Cabinet of Ministers. Here we have many embassies of different countries. That is why it is the political centre of Ukraine.

Science has always flourished in Kyiv. Here the first institute was founded — Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. There has always been literature, music, theatre, art, schools. That is why Kyiv is a great scientific and cultural centre. We have the well known National University named after Taras Shevchenko, a number of institutes, colleges and specialized schools. That is why it is the centre of education.

Kyiv is an industrial centre. People make powerful aeroplanes, produce cloth, medicines, clothes and boots, among other things.

It is well-known for its churches. We have the famous Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. The symbol of Kyiv is the Archangel Mykhail, a heavenly warrior with a sword of fire, who has always been considered the defender of Kyiv. The monument to Mykhail stands in the centre of the capital on the Independence Square.

The territory of the city is 825 square kilometres. The population is 2 million 700 thousand. There are more than 300 schools  and  more than  1300 libraries in the

capital! There are many books written about Kyiv.

Tasks:

  1. What does Kyiv mean for Ukraine?
  2. How many people live in Kyiv? Compare the population  of Kyiv with that of some other capi tals.

3.What books, legends, songs, films about Kyiv do you know?

Choose the best answer:

  1. Ukraine became an independent state
  2. on the 26 th of August.
  3. on the 24 th of April.
  4. on the 24 th of August.

2.National University named after

  1. Taras Shevchenko.
  2. Ivan Franko.
  3. Myhailo Hrusheskiy.

3.The symbol of Kyiv is

  1. Kyi, Schek, Khjryv.
  2. Prince Volodymyr.
  3. Archangel Mykhail.

Kyiv History

Kyiv was founded on the right bank of the Dnieper. Here there was a division between forests and steppes. To the north of Kyiv there were large forests full of wild life.  To the south there were fields of fertile land, good

painting of Uspenskyi Cathedral.

Sick people often came to the Monastery, because the monks were also healers. They healed by prayers. They used herbs and medicines brought from Egypt, Byzantine and the Eastern countries. The most famous healer was Agapit. There is the church and the monument to him in the National Medical University. Damian, other healers included, who healed sick children and Prokhor Lobodnyk healed with herbs.

When Chernigiv Prince Sviatoslav became a monk of Lavra, he built a large hospital with a church to St. Mykolaj. That prince-monk was an amazing person. Like everybody else, he cut woods, carried water, worked in the bakery. He founded a library in Lavra, and planted an orchard on the hills.

Mykhailo Slaboshpytski wrote an interesting book ‘From the Voice of Our Klio’ about many outstanding people of Kyiv Rus.

Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra was the centre of culture for many centuries.

Tasks:

1. When was Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra founded?

2. What was Alimpii?

3. Tell about the ancient Ukrainian healers.

4.Which buildings have survived in the Monastery from the times of Kyiv Rus?

considered sacred. There are the preseved relics of 100 monks in the Lavra. That’s why the Lavra has always attracted believers who come here to worship God’s people. Manyfamous writers, artists, builders and healers of Kyiv Rus are among them. Nestor the Chronicler was one of the monks of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. He wrote the oldest Russian chronicle ‘Chronicle of the Old Times.’ He also wrote ‘The Life of Pheodosius of Pechersk,’ ‘Readings of the Life and Death of Boris and Gleb’ — about the death of Volodymyr’s sons. Pheodosius, a monk of Pechersk Monastery, was also a church-writer. He came from a rich prince’s warrior family, which is why he received a good education.

The monks of Lavra wrote a precious literary monument of Kyiv Rus — a book of stories called ‘Kyiv-Pechersk Paterik.’ The word paterin Latin means father. The priests are usually called fathers. ‘Paterik’ tells about the fathers of Pechersk Lavra, their lives, good deeds, about the foundation of the Monastery, the building of Uspenskyi Cathedral. In every story there is an unusual event, so it is interesting to read.

A very famous icon painter, Alimpii worked in Lavra He was famous all over the Kyiv Rus. Every church wanted to have his icons. One icon was painted for Prince Volodymyr Monomakh. It has survived and is the pride of the picture gallery in Moscow. This is the famous  Mariia  Oranta.  Alimpii also took part in the

for growing wheat.

There is a legend in the ‘Chronicles’ of Nestor written at the beginning of the 12th century. Nestor the Chronicler wrote, “…when Poliany lived freely there were three brothers: Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and a sister – Lybid.” Kyi sat on the hill which is now called Borychiv descent; Schek sat on the hill which is now called Schekavytsia; Khoryv sat on the hill which is now called Khoryvytsia. They built a town and called it Kyiv after their elder brother. There was a forest around the town and people hunted wild animals there.

Nobody knows the exact date of the foundation of Kyiv. The territory of Kyiv was inhabited many years ago. 15—20 thousand years ago our ancient ancestors lived here. Scientists have found several settlements, the largest of which is called Kyrylivska settle­ment. The climate in those days was colder, which is why people lived not on the hill, but in the valley. Archalogists found the remnants of fires, mammoths’ bones and simple tools. You can see them in the Natural Sciences Academy of Ukraine.

The settlements that existed before III century B.C. are called Pre-Kvivan. Then people settled on the Old Kyiv Mountain (Starokyivska) and Castle Mountain (Zamkova), in Podil, Obolon, Pechersk and other places. People grew crops and bred animals, and knew how to make tools out of bronze, ore,  how to make pots

out of clay. They traded with Greek towns on the Black Sea.

Scientists proved that Kyiv as a city had begun life in

the V century.

Kyiv is now considered to be more than 1500 years        old.

Still, we don’t know much about Kyiv. We know the names of Askold and Dir. Askold was famous for his trips to Byzantine. In 860 he was near to taking Konstantynopol (or Tsargorod) and Byzantine had to make a treaty with Askold which was profitable for Rus.

These raids had another result: Askold became a Christian. That was possibly the cause of his death. In 882 Oleg came to Kyiv and killed Askold. The people of Kyiv then made Oleg their prince.

Askold was buried at the place of his death. Later Princess Olga, a Christian, built a church on his grave. In the 19th century a round church was built on that spot.

There is the very beautiful St. Andrew’s church. According to a legend, Jesus’ apostle Andrew appeared at that place, put down a cross and said there would be a Christian city there.

Tasks:

1. Why was the geographical position suitable for foundation of Kyiv?

2.Who founded Kyiv?

  1. When did Kyiv appear as a city?
  2. What do you know about Askold?

The first caves became the Near Caves, and the first man-made caves became the Far Caves, In 1073 building began on the famous Uspenskyi Cathedral. It was built by great craftsmen and decorated with mosaics and frescoes. There were mosaics on the floor and the icons were covered with silver and gold. The walls were full of portraits of Ukrainian princes, hetmans and educationalists. Outstanding people of Ukraine were buried here. During the Second World War it was blown up. Only a part of the wall of the Cathedral has survived.

Troitska (Trinity) Overgate Church was built in the Lavra during the Princes’ times. It has also known changes, and now has the features of Ukrainian baroque, as Sophia Cathedral. There is a wonderful iconostas which was made in the 18th century by Ukrainian craftsmen. It looks like wonderful golden lace. It is difficult to believe it is made of wood.

Underground churches in the caves have also survived. There are 6 of them now. They are very small and simple. The monks refused any decorations which could divert them from thinking about God. The only decorations in the cave churches are golden iconostases.

Kyiv-Pechcrsk Lavra became the greatest sacred place to the Ukrainian people. In the Christian world it stands after Jerusalem and the sacred mountain Afon in Greece. There are many legends surrounding the place: legends of the caves, the churches, the bell-towers, and especially  the  lives of  the people  here.  These are

Tasks:

1.  Why was Sophia Cathedral built?

2.What are its mosaics, fres coes famous for?

  1. Tell about Mariia Oranta.
  2. What do you know about Yaroslav’s library?

Make up sentences:

1. Kyiv / of / cathedral / Rus / Sophia Cathedral / the / was / main.

2. Greek / the / Sophia / wisdom / in / word / means.

3. Old / no / place / mosaics / other / in / has / the / so / world / many.

4. Hunting / on / scenes / of / the / are / walls / there.

5. Books / here / many / ago / were / years / written.

The Glorious Monastery

During the 11th century, in a small cave in the forest over the Dnieper settled a monk named Antonii. He was famous for his righteousness. Other people moved to the cave. Eventually 12 monks widened the cave and made the first underground church. This was the way Pechersk Monastery appeared. We call it Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. Its head was Variaam,  later — Pheodosii.

It was difficult to live in the monastery. The monks ate only bread and drank water. Later they built cells on the mountain. The caves were used for burials. Antonii liked being alone, so he dug a separate cave for himself.

  1. What historical names have survived in Kyiv?

Match 1-5 with a-e to make true sentences:

  1.  Kyiv was founded
  2.  Kyi sat on the hill
  3.  The settlements that existed before III century B.C.
  4.  Schek sat on the hill
  5.  Khoryv sat on the hill
  1.  are called Pre-Kyivan.
  2.  called Schekavytsia.
  3.  on the right bank of the Dnieper.
  4.  called Khoryvytsia.
  5.  called Borychiv descent.

 

The Prince’s City

In the 10th century Kyiv became the capital of a powerful state — Kyiv Rus. It owned a vast territory — frоm the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Prince Oleg nailed a shield to the gate of Tsargorod and made Byzantine pay tribute to Kyiv Rus. Princes Sviatoslav, Volodymyr and Yaroslav added new lands to Kyiv Rus. This great state had a great capital, Kyiv.

The centre of the capital was on the Old Kyiv (Starokyivska) mountain, where legendary Kyiv lived. Prince Volodymyr built a new place. Its territory was 10 hectares. It was the city of Volodymyr.  The streets led to

the main square—Babyn Torzhok (Women’s market), decorated by four horses. Not far away were figures of pagan gods. After baptizing they were thrown into the Dnieper, and the Decimal (Desiatynna) church was built in Kyiv. Prince Volodymyr gave his title for the building of this church. That’s why it has such a name.

The baptizing of Rus took place in 988. From that time chronicles, schools, churches appeared. Prince Volodymyr who baptized Rus is considered a Saint. To honor him Volodymyrskyi Cathedral was built in Kyiv. There is a monument to him on Mykhailivska hill. The bronze prince with a great cross is seen over the Dnieper.

The monument to Princess Olga also reminds us about baptizing of Rus. On one side of the monument stands St Andrew, and on the other side St. Cyril and St. Methodius. Princess Olga is also considered a Saint.

Volodymyr’s town soon became too small. Prince Yaroslav put a fence around a much larger territory. Yaroslav’s town was eight times bigger than Volodymyr’s. Only wealthy people lived there. During that time Kyiv occupied 400 hectares. Approximately 50 thousand people lived there. It was one of the biggest cities in Europe at the time.

Kyiv was worth seeing then. You could see the golden domes of churches and cathedrals and the Golden Gate. The Golden Gate was enormous in size. The wall  was  16  metres  high,  30  metres  wide.  The

that Yaroslav’s descendents divided them, and the books were spread along Russia. Other people believe that the library is still hidden somewhere. For many years it was looked for in the caves under Sophia Cathedral. In front of the Cathedral there is a marble stone with Yaroslav’s portrait to commemorate the first library of Kyiv Rus. Prince Yaroslav the Wise is buried here, in Sophia Cathedral, in a sarcophagus made of white marble.

Sophia Cathedral has seen much tragedy during its history. But the people of Kyiv have always repaired and renewed it New Sophia Cathedral has beautiful new domes. They are in Ukrainian Baroque style.

Sophia Cathedral is a precious monument not only for Ukraine, but for the whole world. UNESCO protects it and tourists from many countries come to see it.

There are many books written about Sophia Cathedral. There is even a historical novel — ‘Wonder’ by Pavlo Zagrebelny.

There is a legend that while Sophia Cathedral is standing and Maria Oranta is praying for us, God is keeping Kyiv safe. Not far from Sophia Cathedral, near the Golden Gate, stands a monument to Yaroslav the Wise. The prince is holding a model of Sophia Ca­thedral on his palm. His greatest creation, and most valuable present to us, his descendents, is Sophia Cathedral.

frescoes have survived. They are not as bright, but they had to withstand very much. The most interesting ones are images of Yaroslav the Wise with his                                            wife, his sons and daughters. On the walls there are scenes of hunting, ancient Russian musicians and dancers. There are also very valuable frescoes, which tell much about life at that time. Sophia Cathedral has its secrets. Why do voices sound so clear here? Without any microphone they can be heard all over the great building. The ancient craftsmen used their skills here. They embedded thousands of pots in the walls. The sound travels into the pots, and the walls work like best modern musical equipment.

One more secret of Sophia has yet to be revealed. Many years ago books were written here. Yaroslav the Wise created and stored his library here. It is believed that there were more than 1000 books in it. In Europe in those days big libraries had about 100 books, the biggest ones had 200 or 300. But here, in Sophia Cathedral, there were three times more! The books were written by hand, their covers were decorated with gold and precious stones. People didn’t use paper in those days, the sheets were made of parchment — a very thin skin. Skins of 60 calves were used to make one book ‘Ostromyrove Gospel.’ They were so expensive that only princes and wealthy people could have books.

The question is: where is the library now? There are different answers to this question.  Some people think

Golden Gate survives even now. It was reconstructed several years ago. Under Independence Square the remnants of another gate was found — Liadski Gate. Under Lviv Square one more gate — Lviv Gate — was excavated.

Khreschatyck was a valley covered with forests on the bottom of which there was a stream. The people of Kyiv hunted here for small animals and birds. On the hills there were churches of monasteries: Klov, Berestove, Vydubychi, Kytaieve. These names have survived up to now.

But the noisest life was in Podil. Here Craftsmen lived. People having the same trade lived in one place, and this place was called after them: Gonchary, Kozhumiaky. Zhytnii market was very busy. Not far from it in the harbour of Pochaina, traders’ ships tied up were moored. The skill of the goldsmiths surprises people even now. Kyiv treasures tell us about this. The richest is the Mykhailivskyi treasure found on Mykhailivsca Hill. The treasures are kept in many museums of Russia and in the Historical Museum of the Jeweller’s Art which is situated in the grounds of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra.

Tasks:

  1. What do you know about Volodymyr’s town?
  2. What do you know about the craftsmen of Podil.

Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences:

  1.  Princess Olga added new lands to Kyiv Rus.
  2.  The centre of the capital was on the Starokyivska mountain.
  3.  The streets led to the main square – Babyn Torzhok, decorated by five horses.
  4. The monument to Saint Volodymyr is on Mykhailivska hill.
  5.  Only wealthy people lived in Yaroslav’s town.

Kyiv Sophia

Up to the 11th century there were constant wars between the people of Kyiv Rus and Pechenigy. They lasted for 120 years. At the beginning of the 11th century Prince Yaroslav fought them for the last time and conquered mem. To celebrate this event in 1037 Prince Yaroslav began building the Sophia Cathedral. This was the main cathedral of Kyiv Rus.

The word Sophiameans wisdomin Greek. Prince Yaroslav, called Wise, valued wisdom, knowledge and books most of all. But he named his biggest cathedral not just because of this. ,The main cathedral of the capital of Byzantine was also called Sophia, and it seemed that Kyiv was challenging Konstantynopol and putting itself on the same level. The rules for building  churches  came  to us from Byzantine along

with Christianity. The church was to be square. Inside it was divided into long sections — naves. Russian builders also built these according to the rules. They also used their own experience, having built stone palaces in Kyiv. Sophia Cathedral doesn’t look like any other church in the world. It is beautiful and unique.

When you come into the Cathedral, you first notice Mother Oranta who is raising her hands in prayer. Mother Oranta is represented on a bright golden background, her clothes are gold and blue. These colours are the symbols of Ukraine, and they are on our flag. On the main dome Jesus Christ you see. He is looking at us with his big, calm, understanding eyes. These and other figures are made of mosaics — coloured pieces of special glass called smalt. These coloured pieces of glass were made by Ukrainian people. They made glass, added some dye and then poured substance onto a flat surface. When these ‘pancakes’ were ready, they were split into even blocks. There are 168 colours in the mosaics of Sophia Cathedral. It was much harder to make the golden pieces. To do this very thin golden sheets were put into the clear the glass.

Of the 640 square metres whichwere decorated with mosaics in Sophia Cathedral, now only 260 are left. Even so, no other place in the world has so many old mosaics.

The rest of the walls were decorated with frescoes — paintings on wet plaster.  About  3000 square metres of

 

The crossword

 

Horisontal

  1. It is well-known for its …
  2. Only … people lived there.
  3. The rest of the walls were decorated with …
  4. Scientists have found several …
  5. The main Kyiv … is the goldsmith.
  6. Sophia Cathedral is beautiful and …

Vertical

1. Kyiv is a great cultural …

  1. Our ancient … lived here.
  2. People settled in …
  3. In the 10 th century Kyiv became the capital of … state.
  4.  The bronze prince with a great … is seen over the Dnieper.

Kyiv

Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. On the 24th of August 1991 Ukraine became an independent state. Kyiv is the home of the Supreme Rada of Ukraine, administration of the President and the Cabinet of Ministers. Here we have many embassies of different countries. That is why it is the political centre of Ukraine.

Science has always flourished in Kyiv. Here the first institute was founded — Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. There has always been literature, music, theatre, art, schools. That is why Kyiv is a great scientific and cultural centre. We have the well known National University named after Taras Shevchenko, a number of institutes, colleges and specialized schools. That is why it is the centre of education.

Kyiv is an industrial centre. People make powerful aeroplanes, produce cloth, medicines, clothes and boots, among other things.

It is well-known for its churches. We have the famous Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. The symbol of Kyiv is the Archangel Mykhail, a heavenly warrior with a sword of fire, who has always been considered the defender of Kyiv. The monument to Mykhail stands in the centre of the capital on the Independence Square.

The territory of the city is 825 square kilometres. The population is 2 million 700 thousand. There are more than 300 schools and more than 1300 libraries in the capital! There are many books written about Kyiv.

Tasks:

  1. What does Kyiv mean for Ukraine?
  2. How many people live in Kyiv? Compare the population  of Kyiv with that of some other capi tals.
  3. What books, legends, songs, films about Kyiv do you know?

Choose the best answer:

  1. Ukraine became an independent state

a) on the 26 th of August.

b) on the 24 th of April.

c) on the 24 th of August.

  1. National University named after

a) Taras Shevchenko.

b) Ivan Franko.

c) Myhailo Hrusheskiy.

  1. The symbol of Kyiv is
  2. Kyi, Schek, Khjryv.
  3. Prince Volodymyr.
  4. Archangel Mykhail.

Kyiv History

Kyiv was founded on the right bank of the Dnieper. Here there was a division between forests and steppes. To the north of Kyiv there were large forests full of wild life. To the south there were fields of fertile land, good for growing wheat.

There is a legend in the ‘Chronicles’ of Nestor written at the beginning of the 12th century. Nestor the Chronicler wrote, “…when Poliany lived freely there were three brothers: Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and a sister – Lybid.” Kyi sat on the hill which is now called Borychiv descent; Schek sat on the hill which is now called Schekavytsia; Khoryv sat on the hill which is now called Khoryvytsia. They built a town and called it Kyiv after their elder brother. There was a forest around the town and people hunted wild animals there.

Nobody knows the exact date of the foundation of Kyiv. The territory of Kyiv was inhabited many years ago. 15—20 thousand years ago our ancient ancestors lived here. Scientists have found several settlements, the largest of which is called Kyrylivska settle­ment. The climate in those days was colder, which is why people lived not on the hill, but in the valley. Archalogists found the remnants of fires, mammoths’ bones and simple tools. You can see them in the Natural Sciences Academy of Ukraine.

The settlements that existed before III century B.C. are called Pre-Kvivan. Then people settled on the Old Kyiv Mountain (Starokyivska) and Castle Mountain (Zamkova), in Podil, Obolon, Pechersk and other places. People grew crops and bred animals, and knew how to make tools out of bronze, ore, how to make pots out of clay. They traded with Greek towns on the Black Sea.

Scientists proved that Kyiv as a city had begun life in the V century.

Kyiv is now considered to be more than 1500 years old.

Still, we don’t know much about Kyiv. We know the names of Askold and Dir. Askold was famous for his trips to Byzantine. In 860 he was near to taking Konstantynopol (or Tsargorod) and Byzantine had to make a treaty with Askold which was profitable for Rus.

These raids had another result: Askold became a Christian. That was possibly the cause of his death. In 882 Oleg came to Kyiv and killed Askold. The people of Kyiv then made Oleg their prince.

Askold was buried at the place of his death. Later Princess Olga, a Christian, built a church on his grave. In the 19th century a round church was built on that spot.

There is the very beautiful St. Andrew’s church. According to a legend, Jesus’ apostle Andrew appeared at that place, put down a cross and said there would be a Christian city there.

Tasks:

1. Why was the geographical position suitable for foundation of Kyiv?

2. Who founded Kyiv?

3. When did Kyiv appear as a city?

  1. What do you know about Askold?
  2. What historical names have survived in Kyiv?

Match 1-5 with a-e to make true sentences:

  1.  Kyiv was founded
  2.  Kyi sat on the hill
  3.  The settlements that existed before III century B.C.
  4.  Schek sat on the hill
  5.  Khoryv sat on the hill
  1.  are called Pre-Kyivan.
  2.  called Schekavytsia.
  3.  on the right bank of the Dnieper.
  4.  called Khoryvytsia.
  5.  called Borychiv descent.

 

The Prince’s City

In the 10th century Kyiv became the capital of a powerful state — Kyiv Rus. It owned a vast territory — frоm the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Prince Oleg nailed a shield to the gate of Tsargorod and made Byzantine pay tribute to Kyiv Rus. Princes Sviatoslav, Volodymyr and Yaroslav added new lands to Kyiv Rus. This great state had a great capital, Kyiv.

The centre of the capital was on the Old Kyiv (Starokyivska) mountain, where legendary Kyiv lived. Prince Volodymyr built a new place. Its territory was 10 hectares. It was the city of Volodymyr. The streets led to the main square—Babyn Torzhok (Women’s market), decorated by four horses. Not far away were figures of pagan gods. After baptizing they were thrown into the Dnieper, and the Decimal (Desiatynna) church was built in Kyiv. Prince Volodymyr gave his title for the building of this church. That’s why it has such a name.

The baptizing of Rus took place in 988. From that time chronicles, schools, churches appeared. Prince Volodymyr who baptized Rus is considered a Saint. To honor him Volodymyrskyi Cathedral was built in Kyiv. There is a monument to him on Mykhailivska hill. The bronze prince with a great cross is seen over the Dnieper.

The monument to Princess Olga also reminds us about baptizing of Rus. On one side of the monument stands St Andrew, and on the other side St. Cyril and St. Methodius. Princess Olga is also considered a Saint.

Volodymyr’s town soon became too small. Prince Yaroslav put a fence around a much larger territory. Yaroslav’s town was eight times bigger than Volodymyr’s. Only wealthy people lived there. During that time Kyiv occupied 400 hectares. Approximately 50 thousand people lived there. It was one of the biggest cities in Europe at the time.

Kyiv was worth seeing then. You could see the golden domes of churches and cathedrals and the Golden Gate. The Golden Gate was enormous in size. The wall was 16 metres high, 30 metres wide. The Golden Gate survives even now. It was reconstructed several years ago. Under Independence Square the remnants of another gate was found — Liadski Gate. Under Lviv Square one more gate — Lviv Gate — was excavated.

Khreschatyck was a valley covered with forests on the bottom of which there was a stream. The people of Kyiv hunted here for small animals and birds. On the hills there were churches of monasteries: Klov, Berestove, Vydubychi, Kytaieve. These names have survived up to now.

But the noisest life was in Podil. Here Craftsmen lived. People having the same trade lived in one place, and this place was called after them: Gonchary, Kozhumiaky. Zhytnii market was very busy. Not far from it in the harbour of Pochaina, traders’ ships tied up were moored. The skill of the goldsmiths surprises people even now. Kyiv treasures tell us about this. The richest is the Mykhailivskyi treasure found on Mykhailivsca Hill. The treasures are kept in many museums of Russia and in the Historical Museum of the Jeweller’s Art which is situated in the grounds of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra.

Tasks:

  1. What do you know about Volodymyr’s town?
  2. What do you know about the craftsmen of Podil.

Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences:

  1.  Princess Olga added new lands to Kyiv Rus.
  2.  The centre of the capital was on the Starokyivska mountain.
  3. The streets led to the main square – Babyn Torzhok, decorated by five horses.
  4.  The monument to Saint Volodymyr is on Mykhailivska hill.
  5.  Only wealthy people lived in Yaroslav’s town.

Kyiv Sophia

Up to the 11th century there were constant wars between the people of Kyiv Rus and Pechenigy. They lasted for 120 years. At the beginning of the 11th century Prince Yaroslav fought them for the last time and conquered mem. To celebrate this event in 1037 Prince Yaroslav began building the Sophia Cathedral. This was the main cathedral of Kyiv Rus.

The word Sophiameans wisdomin Greek. Prince Yaroslav, called Wise, valued wisdom, knowledge and books most of all. But he named his biggest cathedral not just because of this. ,The main cathedral of the capital of Byzantine was also called Sophia, and it seemed that Kyiv was challenging Konstantynopol and putting itself on the same level. The rules for building churches came to us from Byzantine along with Christianity. The church was to be square. Inside it was divided into long sections — naves. Russian builders also built these according to the rules. They also used their own experience, having built stone palaces in Kyiv. Sophia Cathedral doesn’t look like any other church in the world. It is beautiful and unique.

When you come into the Cathedral, you first notice Mother Oranta who is raising her hands in prayer. Mother Oranta is represented on a bright golden background, her clothes are gold and blue. These colours are the symbols of Ukraine, and they are on our flag. On the main dome Jesus Christ you see. He is looking at us with his big, calm, understanding eyes. These and other figures are made of mosaics — coloured pieces of special glass called smalt. These coloured pieces of glass were made by Ukrainian people. They made glass, added some dye and then poured substance onto a flat surface. When these ‘pancakes’ were ready, they were split into even blocks. There are 168 colours in the mosaics of Sophia Cathedral. It was much harder to make the golden pieces. To do this very thin golden sheets were put into the clear the glass.

Of the 640 square metres whichwere decorated with mosaics in Sophia Cathedral, now only 260 are left. Even so, no other place in the world has so many old mosaics.

The rest of the walls were decorated with frescoes — paintings on wet plaster. About 3000 square metres of frescoes have survived. They are not as bright, but they had to withstand very much. The most interesting ones are images of Yaroslav the Wise with his                                            wife, his sons and daughters. On the walls there are scenes of hunting, ancient Russian musicians and dancers. There are also very valuable frescoes, which tell much about life at that time. Sophia Cathedral has its secrets. Why do voices sound so clear here? Without any microphone they can be heard all over the great building. The ancient craftsmen used their skills here. They embedded thousands of pots in the walls. The sound travels into the pots, and the walls work like best modern musical equipment.

One more secret of Sophia has yet to be revealed. Many years ago books were written here. Yaroslav the Wise created and stored his library here. It is believed that there were more than 1000 books in it. In Europe in those days big libraries had about 100 books, the biggest ones had 200 or 300. But here, in Sophia Cathedral, there were three times more! The books were written by hand, their covers were decorated with gold and precious stones. People didn’t use paper in those days, the sheets were made of parchment — a very thin skin. Skins of 60 calves were used to make one book ‘Ostromyrove Gospel.’ They were so expensive that only princes and wealthy people could have books.

The question is: where is the library now? There are different answers to this question. Some people think that Yaroslav’s descendents divided them, and the books were spread along Russia. Other people believe that the library is still hidden somewhere. For many years it was looked for in the caves under Sophia Cathedral. In front of the Cathedral there is a marble stone with Yaroslav’s portrait to commemorate the first library of Kyiv Rus. Prince Yaroslav the Wise is buried here, in Sophia Cathedral, in a sarcophagus made of white marble.

Sophia Cathedral has seen much tragedy during its history. But the people of Kyiv have always repaired and renewed it New Sophia Cathedral has beautiful new domes. They are in Ukrainian Baroque style.

Sophia Cathedral is a precious monument not only for Ukraine, but for the whole world. UNESCO protects it and tourists from many countries come to see it.

There are many books written about Sophia Cathedral. There is even a historical novel — ‘Wonder’ by Pavlo Zagrebelny.

There is a legend that while Sophia Cathedral is standing and Maria Oranta is praying for us, God is keeping Kyiv safe. Not far from Sophia Cathedral, near the Golden Gate, stands a monument to Yaroslav the Wise. The prince is holding a model of Sophia Ca­thedral on his palm. His greatest creation, and most valuable present to us, his descendents, is Sophia Cathedral.

Tasks:

1. Why was Sophia Cathedral built?

2. What are its mosaics, fres coes famous for?

  1. Tell about Mariia Oranta.
  2. What do you know about Yaroslav’s library?

Make up sentences:

  1. Kyiv / of / cathedral / Rus / Sophia Cathedral / the / was / main.
  2. Greek / the / Sophia / wisdom / in / word / means.
  3. Old / no / place / mosaics / other / in / has / the / so / world / many.
  4. Hunting / on / scenes / of / the / are / walls / there.
  5. Books / here / many / ago / were / years / written.

 

The Glorious Monastery

During the 11th century, in a small cave in the forest over the Dnieper settled a monk named Antonii. He was famous for his righteousness. Other people moved to the cave. Eventually 12 monks widened the cave and made the first underground church. This was the way Pechersk Monastery appeared. We call it Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. Its head was Variaam,  later — Pheodosii.

It was difficult to live in the monastery. The monks ate only bread and drank water. Later they built cells on the mountain. The caves were used for burials. Antonii liked being alone, so he dug a separate cave for himself.

The first caves became the Near Caves, and the first man-made caves became the Far Caves, In 1073 building began on the famous Uspenskyi Cathedral. It was built by great craftsmen and decorated with mosaics and frescoes. There were mosaics on the floor and the icons were covered with silver and gold. The walls were full of portraits of Ukrainian princes, hetmans and educationalists. Outstanding people of Ukraine were buried here. During the Second World War it was blown up. Only a part of the wall of the Cathedral has survived.

Troitska (Trinity) Overgate Church was built in the Lavra during the Princes’ times. It has also known changes, and now has the features of Ukrainian baroque, as Sophia Cathedral. There is a wonderful iconostas which was made in the 18th century by Ukrainian craftsmen. It looks like wonderful golden lace. It is difficult to believe it is made of wood.

Underground churches in the caves have also survived. There are 6 of them now. They are very small and simple. The monks refused any decorations which could divert them from thinking about God. The only decorations in the cave churches are golden iconostases.

Kyiv-Pechcrsk Lavra became the greatest sacred place to the Ukrainian people. In the Christian world it stands after Jerusalem and the sacred mountain Afon in Greece. There are many legends surrounding the place: legends of the caves, the churches, the bell-towers, and especially the lives of the people here. These are considered sacred. There are the preseved relics of 100 monks in the Lavra. That’s why the Lavra has always attracted believers who come here to worship God’s people. Manyfamous writers, artists, builders and healers of Kyiv Rus are among them. Nestor the Chronicler was one of the monks of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. He wrote the oldest Russian chronicle ‘Chronicle of the Old Times.’ He also wrote ‘The Life of Pheodosius of Pechersk,’ ‘Readings of the Life and Death of Boris and Gleb’ — about the death of Volodymyr’s sons. Pheodosius, a monk of Pechersk Monastery, was also a church-writer. He came from a rich prince’s warrior family, which is why he received a good education.

The monks of Lavra wrote a precious literary monument of Kyiv Rus — a book of stories called ‘Kyiv-Pechersk Paterik.’ The word paterin Latin means father. The priests are usually called fathers. ‘Paterik’ tells about the fathers of Pechersk Lavra, their lives, good deeds, about the foundation of the Monastery, the building of Uspenskyi Cathedral. In every story there is an unusual event, so it is interesting to read.

A very famous icon painter, Alimpii worked in Lavra He was famous all over the Kyiv Rus. Every church wanted to have his icons. One icon was painted for Prince Volodymyr Monomakh. It has survived and is the pride of the picture gallery in Moscow. This is the famous Mariia Oranta. Alimpii also took part in the painting of Uspenskyi Cathedral.

Sick people often came to the Monastery, because the monks were also healers. They healed by prayers. They used herbs and medicines brought from Egypt, Byzantine and the Eastern countries. The most famous healer was Agapit. There is the church and the monument to him in the National Medical University. Damian, other healers included, who healed sick children and Prokhor Lobodnyk healed with herbs.

When Chernigiv Prince Sviatoslav became a monk of Lavra, he built a large hospital with a church to St. Mykolaj. That prince-monk was an amazing person. Like everybody else, he cut woods, carried water, worked in the bakery. He founded a library in Lavra, and planted an orchard on the hills.

Mykhailo Slaboshpytski wrote an interesting book ‘From the Voice of Our Klio’ about many outstanding people of Kyiv Rus.

Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra was the centre of culture for many centuries.

Tasks:

  1.  When was Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra founded?
  2. What was Alimpii?
  3. Tell about the ancient Ukrainian healers.

4. Which buildings have survived in the Monastery from the times of Kyiv Rus?

5. Whom   do  you  know among ancient Russian writers?

6. What famous book is written in Lavra?

 

Horisontal

  1. It is well-known for its …
  2. Only … people lived there.
  3. The rest of the walls were decorated with …
  4. Scientists have found several …
  5. The main Kyiv … is the goldsmith.
  6. Sophia Cathedral is beautiful and …

Vertical

1. Kyiv is a great cultural …

  1. Our ancient … lived here.
  2. People settled in …
  3. In the 10 th century Kyiv became the capital of … state.

10. The bronze prince with a great … is seen over the Dnieper.

Kyiv

Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. On the 24th of August 1991 Ukraine became an independent state. Kyiv is the home of the Supreme Rada of Ukraine, administration of the President and the Cabinet of Ministers. Here we have many embassies of different countries. That is why it is the political centre of Ukraine.

Science has always flourished in Kyiv. Here the first institute was founded — Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. There has always been literature, music, theatre, art, schools. That is why Kyiv is a great scientific and cultural centre. We have the well known National University named after Taras Shevchenko, a number of institutes, colleges and specialized schools. That is why it is the centre of education.

Kyiv is an industrial centre. People make powerful aeroplanes, produce cloth, medicines, clothes and boots, among other things.

It is well-known for its churches. We have the famous Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. The symbol of Kyiv is the Archangel Mykhail, a heavenly warrior with a sword of fire, who has always been considered the defender of Kyiv. The monument to Mykhail stands in the centre of the capital on the Independence Square.

The territory of the city is 825 square kilometres. The population is 2 million 700 thousand. There are more than 300 schools and more than 1300 libraries in the capital! There are many books written about Kyiv.

Tasks:

  1. What does Kyiv mean for Ukraine?
  2. How many people live in Kyiv? Compare the population  of Kyiv with that of some other capi tals.
  3. What books, legends, songs, films about Kyiv do you know?

Choose the best answer:

  1. Ukraine became an independent state

a) on the 26 th of August.

b) on the 24 th of April.

c) on the 24 th of August.

  1. National University named after

a) Taras Shevchenko.

b) Ivan Franko.

c) Myhailo Hrusheskiy.

  1. The symbol of Kyiv is
  2. Kyi, Schek, Khjryv.
  3. Prince Volodymyr.
  4. Archangel Mykhail.

Kyiv History

Kyiv was founded on the right bank of the Dnieper. Here there was a division between forests and steppes. To the north of Kyiv there were large forests full of wild life. To the south there were fields of fertile land, good for growing wheat.

There is  a  legend in  the  ‘Chronicles’ of  Nestor

the monks were also healers. They healed by prayers. They used herbs and medicines brought from Egypt, Byzantine and the Eastern countries. The most famous healer was Agapit. There is the church and the monument to him in the National Medical University. Damian, other healers included, who healed sick children and Prokhor Lobodnyk healed with herbs.

When Chernigiv Prince Sviatoslav became a monk of Lavra, he built a large hospital with a church to St. Mykolaj. That prince-monk was an amazing person. Like everybody else, he cut woods, carried water, worked in the bakery. He founded a library in Lavra, and planted an orchard on the hills.

Mykhailo Slaboshpytski wrote an interesting book ‘From the Voice of Our Klio’ about many outstanding people of Kyiv Rus.

Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra was the centre of culture for many centuries.

Tasks:

1. When was Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra founded?

2. What was Alimpii?

3. Tell about the ancient Ukrainian healers.

4. Which buildings have survived in the Monastery from the times of Kyiv Rus?

5. Whom   do  you  know among ancient Russian writers?

6. What famous book is written in Lavra?

attracted believers who come here to worship God’s people. Manyfamous writers, artists, builders and healers of Kyiv Rus are among them. Nestor the Chronicler was one of the monks of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. He wrote the oldest Russian chronicle ‘Chronicle of the Old Times.’ He also wrote ‘The Life of Pheodosius of Pechersk,’ ‘Readings of the Life and Death of Boris and Gleb’ — about the death of Volodymyr’s sons. Pheodosius, a monk of Pechersk Monastery, was also a church-writer. He came from a rich prince’s warrior family, which is why he received a good education.

The monks of Lavra wrote a precious literary monument of Kyiv Rus — a book of stories called ‘Kyiv-Pechersk Paterik.’ The word paterin Latin means father. The priests are usually called fathers. ‘Paterik’ tells about the fathers of Pechersk Lavra, their lives, good deeds, about the foundation of the Monastery, the building of Uspenskyi Cathedral. In every story there is an unusual event, so it is interesting to read.

A very famous icon painter, Alimpii worked in Lavra He was famous all over the Kyiv Rus. Every church wanted to have his icons. One icon was painted for Prince Volodymyr Monomakh. It has survived and is the pride of the picture gallery in Moscow. This is the famous Mariia Oranta. Alimpii also took part in the painting of Uspenskyi Cathedral.

Sick people often came to  the Monastery, because

written at the beginning of the 12th century. Nestor the Chronicler wrote, “…when Poliany lived freely there were three brothers: Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and a sister – Lybid.” Kyi sat on the hill which is now called Borychiv descent; Schek sat on the hill which is now called Schekavytsia; Khoryv sat on the hill which is now called Khoryvytsia. They built a town and called it Kyiv after their elder brother. There was a forest around the town and people hunted wild animals there.

Nobody knows the exact date of the foundation of Kyiv. The territory of Kyiv was inhabited many years ago. 15—20 thousand years ago our ancient ancestors lived here. Scientists have found several settlements, the largest of which is called Kyrylivska settle­ment. The climate in those days was colder, which is why people lived not on the hill, but in the valley. Archalogists found the remnants of fires, mammoths’ bones and simple tools. You can see them in the Natural Sciences Academy of Ukraine.

The settlements that existed before III century B.C. are called Pre-Kvivan. Then people settled on the Old Kyiv Mountain (Starokyivska) and Castle Mountain (Zamkova), in Podil, Obolon, Pechersk and other places. People grew crops and bred animals, and knew how to make tools out of bronze, ore, how to make pots out of clay. They traded with Greek towns on the Black Sea.

Scientists proved that Kyiv as a city had begun life in the V century.

Kyiv is now considered to be more than 1500 years old.

Still, we don’t know much about Kyiv. We know the names of Askold and Dir. Askold was famous for his trips to Byzantine. In 860 he was near to taking Konstantynopol (or Tsargorod) and Byzantine had to make a treaty with Askold which was profitable for Rus.

These raids had another result: Askold became a Christian. That was possibly the cause of his death. In 882 Oleg came to Kyiv and killed Askold. The people of Kyiv then made Oleg their prince.

Askold was buried at the place of his death. Later Princess Olga, a Christian, built a church on his grave. In the 19th century a round church was built on that spot.

There is the very beautiful St. Andrew’s church. According to a legend, Jesus’ apostle Andrew appeared at that place, put down a cross and said there would be a Christian city there.

Tasks:

1. Why was the geographical position suitable for foundation of Kyiv?

2. Who founded Kyiv?

3. When did Kyiv appear as a city?

  1. What do you know about Askold?
  2. What historical names have survived in Kyiv?

building began on the famous Uspenskyi Cathedral. It was built by great craftsmen and decorated with mosaics and frescoes. There were mosaics on the floor and the icons were covered with silver and gold. The walls were full of portraits of Ukrainian princes, hetmans and educationalists. Outstanding people of Ukraine were buried here. During the Second World War it was blown up. Only a part of the wall of the Cathedral has survived.

Troitska (Trinity) Overgate Church was built in the Lavra during the Princes’ times. It has also known changes, and now has the features of Ukrainian baroque, as Sophia Cathedral. There is a wonderful iconostas which was made in the 18th century by Ukrainian craftsmen. It looks like wonderful golden lace. It is difficult to believe it is made of wood.

Underground churches in the caves have also survived. There are 6 of them now. They are very small and simple. The monks refused any decorations which could divert them from thinking about God. The only decorations in the cave churches are golden iconostases.

Kyiv-Pechcrsk Lavra became the greatest sacred place to the Ukrainian people. In the Christian world it stands after Jerusalem and the sacred mountain Afon in Greece. There are many legends surrounding the place: legends of the caves, the churches, the bell-towers, and especially the lives of the people here. These are considered sacred. There are the preseved relics of 100 monks in the Lavra. That’s why the Lavra  has always

2. What are its mosaics, fres coes famous for?

3. Tell about Mariia Oranta.

  1. What do you know about Yaroslav’s library?

Make up sentences:

1. Kyiv / of / cathedral / Rus / Sophia Cathedral / the / was / main.

2. Greek / the / Sophia / wisdom / in / word / means.

3. Old / no / place / mosaics / other / in / has / the / so / world / many.

4. Hunting / on / scenes / of / the / are / walls / there.

5. Books / here / many / ago / were / years / written.

The Glorious Monastery

During the 11th century, in a small cave in the forest over the Dnieper settled a monk named Antonii. He was famous for his righteousness. Other people moved to the cave. Eventually 12 monks widened the cave and made the first underground church. This was the way Pechersk Monastery appeared. We call it Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. Its head was Variaam,  later — Pheodosii.

It was difficult to live in the monastery. The monks ate only bread and drank water. Later they built cells on the mountain. The caves were used for burials. Antonii liked being alone, so he dug a separate cave for himself.

The first caves became the Near Caves, and the first man-made  caves  became  the  Far  Caves. In  1073

Match 1-5 with a-e to make true sentences:

1.  Kyiv was founded

2.  Kyi sat on the hill

3.  The settlements that existed before III century B.C.

4.  Schek sat on the hill

5.  Khoryv sat on the hill

a)  are called Pre-Kyivan.

b)  called Schekavytsia.

c)  on the right bank of the Dnieper.

d)  called Khoryvytsia.

e)  called Borychiv descent.

The Prince’s City

In the 10th century Kyiv became the capital of a powerful state — Kyiv Rus. It owned a vast territory — frоm the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Prince Oleg nailed a shield to the gate of Tsargorod and made Byzantine pay tribute to Kyiv Rus. Princes Sviatoslav, Volodymyr and Yaroslav added new lands to Kyiv Rus. This great state had a great capital, Kyiv.

The centre of the capital was on the Old Kyiv (Starokyivska) mountain, where legendary Kyiv lived. Prince Volodymyr built a new place. Its territory was 10 hectares. It was the city of Volodymyr. The streets led to the main square—Babyn Torzhok (Women’s market), decorated by four horses.  Not far away were figures of

pagan gods. After baptizing they were thrown into the Dnieper, and the Decimal (Desiatynna) church was built in Kyiv. Prince Volodymyr gave his title for the building of this church. That’s why it has such a name.

The baptizing of Rus took place in 988. From that time chronicles, schools, churches appeared. Prince Volodymyr who baptized Rus is considered a Saint. To honor him Volodymyrskyi Cathedral was built in Kyiv. There is a monument to him on Mykhailivska hill. The bronze prince with a great cross is seen over the Dnieper.

The monument to Princess Olga also reminds us about baptizing of Rus. On one side of the monument stands St Andrew, and on the other side St. Cyril and St. Methodius. Princess Olga is also considered a Saint.

Volodymyr’s town soon became too small. Prince Yaroslav put a fence around a much larger territory. Yaroslav’s town was eight times bigger than Volodymyr’s. Only wealthy people lived there. During that time Kyiv occupied 400 hectares. Approximately 50 thousand people lived there. It was one of the biggest cities in Europe at the time.

Kyiv was worth seeing then. You could see the golden  domes of churches and cathedrals and the Golden  Gate. The Golden Gate was enormous in size. The wall was 16 metres high, 30 metres wide. The Golden Gate survives even now. It was reconstructed several  years ago. Under  Independence  Square  the

the library is still hidden somewhere. For many years it was looked for in the caves under Sophia Cathedral. In front of the Cathedral there is a marble stone with Yaroslav’s portrait to commemorate the first library of Kyiv Rus. Prince Yaroslav the Wise is buried here, in Sophia Cathedral, in a sarcophagus made of white marble.

Sophia Cathedral has seen much tragedy during its history. But the people of Kyiv have always repaired and renewed it New Sophia Cathedral has beautiful new domes. They are in Ukrainian Baroque style.

Sophia Cathedral is a precious monument not only for Ukraine, but for the whole world. UNESCO protects it and tourists from many countries come to see it.

There are many books written about Sophia Cathedral. There is even a historical novel — ‘Wonder’ by Pavlo Zagrebelny.

There is a legend that while Sophia Cathedral is standing and Maria Oranta is praying for us, God is keeping Kyiv safe. Not far from Sophia Cathedral, near the Golden Gate, stands a monument to Yaroslav the Wise. The prince is holding a model of Sophia Ca­thedral on his palm. His greatest creation, and most valuable present to us, his descendents, is Sophia Cathedral.

Tasks:

1. Why was Sophia Cathedral built?

are images of Yaroslav the Wise with his                                            wife, his sons and daughters. On the walls there are scenes of hunting, ancient Russian musicians and dancers. There are also very valuable frescoes, which tell much about life at that time. Sophia Cathedral has its secrets. Why do voices sound so clear here? Without any microphone they can be heard all over the great building. The ancient craftsmen used their skills here. They embedded thousands of pots in the walls. The sound travels into the pots, and the walls work like best modern musical equipment.

One more secret of Sophia has yet to be revealed. Many years ago books were written here. Yaroslav the Wise created and stored his library here. It is believed that there were more than 1000 books in it. In Europe in those days big libraries had about 100 books, the biggest ones had 200 or 300. But here, in Sophia Cathedral, there were three times more! The books were written by hand, their covers were decorated with gold and precious stones. People didn’t use paper in those days, the sheets were made of parchment — a very thin skin. Skins of 60 calves were used to make one book ‘Ostromyrove Gospel.’ They were so expensive that only princes and wealthy people could have books.

The question is: where is the library now? There are different answers to this question. Some people think that Yaroslav’s descendents divided them, and the books were spread along Russia. Other people  believe that

remnants of another gate was found — Liadski Gate. Under Lviv Square one more gate — Lviv Gate — was excavated.

Khreschatyck was a valley covered with forests on the bottom of which there was a stream. The people of Kyiv hunted here for small animals and birds. On the hills there were churches of monasteries: Klov, Berestove, Vydubychi, Kytaieve. These names have survived up to now.

But the noisest life was in Podil. Here Craftsmen lived. People having the same trade lived in one place, and this place was called after them: Gonchary, Kozhumiaky. Zhytnii market was very busy. Not far from it in the harbour of Pochaina, traders’ ships tied up were moored. The skill of the goldsmiths surprises people even now. Kyiv treasures tell us about this. The richest is the Mykhailivskyi treasure found on Mykhailivsca Hill. The treasures are kept in many museums of Russia and in the Historical Museum of the Jeweller’s Art which is situated in the grounds of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra.

Tasks:

  1. What do you know about Volodymyr’s town?
  2. What do you know about the craftsmen of Podil.

Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences:

  1.  Princess Olga added new lands to Kyiv Rus.

2. The centre of the capital was on the Starokyivska mountain.

3. The streets led to the main square – Babyn Torzhok, decorated by five horses.

4. The monument to Saint Volodymyr is on Mykhailivska hill.

5.  Only wealthy people lived in Yaroslav’s town.

Kyiv Sophia

Up to the 11th century there were constant wars between the people of Kyiv Rus and Pechenigy. They lasted for 120 years. At the beginning of the 11th century Prince Yaroslav fought them for the last time and conquered mem. To celebrate this event in 1037 Prince Yaroslav began building the Sophia Cathedral. This was the main cathedral of Kyiv Rus.

The word Sophiameans wisdomin Greek. Prince Yaroslav, called Wise, valued wisdom, knowledge and books most of all. But he named his biggest cathedral not just because of this. The main cathedral of the capital of Byzantine was also called Sophia, and it seemed that Kyiv was challenging Konstantynopol and putting itself on the same level. The rules for building churches came to us from Byzantine along with Christianity. The church was to  be square. Inside it was  divided  into  long sections — naves.  Russian

builders also built these according to the rules. They also used their own experience, having built stone palaces in Kyiv. Sophia Cathedral doesn’t look like any other church in the world. It is beautiful and unique.

When you come into the Cathedral, you first notice Mother Oranta who is raising her hands in prayer. Mother Oranta is represented on a bright golden background, her clothes are gold and blue. These colours are the symbols of Ukraine, and they are on our flag. On the main dome Jesus Christ you see. He is looking at us with his big, calm, understanding eyes. These and other figures are made of mosaics — coloured pieces of special glass called smalt. These coloured pieces of glass were made by Ukrainian people. They made glass, added some dye and then poured substance onto a flat surface. When these ‘pancakes’ were ready, they were split into even blocks. There are 168 colours in the mosaics of Sophia Cathedral. It was much harder to make the golden pieces. To do this very thin golden sheets were put into the clear the glass.

Of the 640 square metres whichwere decorated with mosaics in Sophia Cathedral, now only 260 are left. Even so, no other place in the world has so many old mosaics.

The rest of the walls were decorated with frescoes — paintings on wet plaster. About 3000 square metres of frescoes have survived. They are not as bright, but they had to withstand very much. The  most  interesting ones

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